Pine-Pine Gall Rust (also called western gall rust) - Peridermium (Endocronartium)harknessii
Mutiple galls on pine.
Spores produced on galls look like aeciospores but directly infect pines.
Pine-Oak Gall Rust (also called eastern gall rust) - Cronartium quercuum f.sp. banksiana
Pine seedling with young gall producing pycnia.
Gall producing aeciospores.
Uredinia producing on the lower surface of red oak (the alternate host) leaves.
Telia on lower surface of red oak leaves.
Fusiform Rust caused by Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme
Fusiforn rust causing a spindle- or fusiform-shaped gall.
Pycnia, formed soon after infection, produce pycniospores.
Aecia on the fusiform gall produce aeciospores.
The red oak group of species is the alternate host of Fusiform rust. Uredinia form on the lower leaf surface.
Uredinia produce urediniospores on oak leaves.
Later in the season, telia form on the leaves.
Telia form out of the old uredinia. The teliospores will produce the basidiospores.